Izinga likashukela egazini elijwayelekile eminyakeni engamashumi amane

U-Mohamed Sharkawy
2023-11-05T05:36:23+00:00
ulwazi oluvamile
U-Mohamed SharkawyIhlolwe ngu: Mostafa AhmedEmaminithini angu-45 edluleIsibuyekezo sokugcina: emizuzwini engama-45 edlule

Izinga likashukela egazini elijwayelekile eminyakeni engamashumi amane

  • Ucwaningo lwesayensi lukhombisa ukuthi izinga likashukela egazini elijwayelekile liyahlukahluka kuye ngokweqembu leminyaka, kanti izinga likashukela egazini kubantu abadala abaneminyaka engaphezu kwamashumi amane liphansi kunelijwayelekile kubantu abasha.

Ngenxa yalokhu, i-95 percentile etholwe ngumuntu oneminyaka engu-40 ekuhloleni ushukela wegazi lokuzila ukudla ibhekwa ngaphakathi kwebanga elijwayelekile elilindelekile.
Akukhona lokho kuphela, kodwa kukhona omunye umehluko ezingeni likashukela elivamile labantu uma bedla noma bezila isikhathi esithile.

Isibonelo, izinga likashukela egazini elivamile kubantu abadala abaneminyaka engu-90 lisuka ku-110 liye ku-68 mg/dL amahora amabili ngemva kokudla ukudla, kuyilapho liphakathi kuka-108 kuya ku-XNUMX mg/dL ngaphambi kokudla.
Uma umuntu ezila ukudla amahora angu-8, izinga likashukela egazini elijwayelekile lingama-68 kuya ku-108 mg/dL.

  • Ngaphezu kwalokho, amazinga kashukela ajwayelekile ayindlela ebalulekile yokusiza abanesifo sikashukela baqaphe amazinga kashukela egazini.
  • Okokugcina, lapho sikhuluma ngezinga likashukela egazini elivamile ezinganeni ezingaphansi kweminyaka engu-6 ubudala, kufanele libe phakathi kuka-80-200 mg/dL ngosuku.
  • Ukwazi izigaba ezijwayelekile zamazinga kashukela egazini kubalulekile ukugcina impilo yomuntu nokuqinisekisa ukuthi akukho ukuphazamiseka emazingeni kashukela egazini okwenzekayo.
Izinga likashukela egazini elijwayelekile eminyakeni engamashumi amane

Ingabe izinga likashukela lika-150 livamile?

Izinga likashukela egazini entsheni ngokuvamile lisukela ku-70 kuya ku-150 mg/dL.
Kubantu abadala abaneminyaka engu-20 nangaphezulu, izinga likashukela egazini elivamile emahoreni amabili ngemva kokudla liphakathi kuka-140 no-200 mg/dl.
Uma iphesenti lingaphansi kuka-140, kubhekwa njengokujwayelekile, kodwa uma liphakathi kuka-140 no-200, iphesenti likashukela wegazi elivamile ngemva kokudla amahora amabili libhekwa njenge-150.

Kodwa-ke, kufanele kuqashelwe ukuthi izinga likashukela egazini noma izinga likashukela egazini elivamile lingahluka kubantu asebekhulile abangenaso isifo sikashukela.
Kuleli qembu lobudala, izinga likashukela egazini elijwayelekile kwabesifazane abangaphezu kweminyaka engama-60 abangenaso isifo sikashukela libhekwa njengelingaphezu kwe-140.

  • Izinga lokuhlolwa lincike ezingeni le-glucose egazini, njengoba izinga likashukela egazini elijwayelekile ngaphansi kokuhlolwa kokuzila ukudla lisukela ku-90 kuya ku-150 mg/dL.
  • Ngokuqondene nabantu abanempilo, izinga likashukela egazini elivamile ngemva kokuzila ukudla lingaphansi kuka-100 mg/dL, kuyilapho lisuka ku-80 liye ku-130 mg/dL kubantu abanesifo sikashukela.
  • Ngemva kokuzila okungenani amahora angu-8, izinga likashukela egazini elivamile lingaphansi kuka-100 mg/dl.

Kuyaziwa ukuthi amazinga kashukela egazini aqala ukwenyuka ngisho nangaphambi kokuba umuntu abe nesifo sikashukela sohlobo XNUMX.
Isibonelo, izinga likashukela egazini lika-5.7% libhekwa njengejwayelekile, kanti u-5.7% kuya ku-6.4% utholakala njenge-prediabetes.

Kubalulekile ukuthi umuntu azi ukuthi kufanele adwebe nini isampula yokuhlola ushukela egazini Uma izinga likashukela lifinyelela ku-150, kungase kubonise inkinga yezempilo edinga ukubonisana nodokotela ukuze athole ukunakekelwa okudingekayo.

Abantu kufanele banake amazinga kashukela egazini futhi bahlole njalo ukuze baqinisekise ukuthi bahlala bephilile.

Lingakanani izinga likashukela egazini lomuntu onempilo ngaphambi kokudla kwasekuseni?

Ukuhlola izinga likashukela egazini ngaphambi kokudla kwasekuseni kubalulekile ukuze kuhlolwe impilo yomuntu nokuthi amazinga kashukela aqine kangakanani.
Ibanga elivamile likashukela egazini ngaphambi kokudla kwasekuseni liphakathi kwamamiligremu angu-60 no-90 idesilitha ngalinye.

  • Lokhu kufunda okuvamile kubalulekile ngoba kusiza ekuboneni ukuthi kunenkinga yini ekulawuleni amazinga kashukela emzimbeni.

Kuyaphawuleka ukuthi uma iphesenti lidlula ama-milligrams angu-90 ngedesilitha ngalinye kodwa lisengaphansi kwama-milligram ayi-100 ngedesilitha ngayinye (5.6 mmol/L), lokhu kusho ukuthi umuntu uhlushwa isifo sikashukela sangaphambi kwesikhathi.
Uma isilinganiso siphakathi kwamamiligremu angu-140 kuya kwangu-199 ngedesilitha ngalinye, lokhu kubonisa ukuthi umuntu unesifo sikashukela.

Ukwazi izinga likashukela elijwayelekile kubalulekile kubantu abanempilo kanye nalabo abanesifo sikashukela ngokufanayo.
Lawa mazinga ancike eqenjini leminyaka yobudala kanye nezinye izici ezinomthelela.
Nakuba amazinga avamile kashukela egazini ehluka usuku lonke, ngokuvamile aphansi ngaphambi kokudla kwasekuseni nasenkathini yangaphambi kokudla.

Ukwazi izinga elijwayelekile likashukela egazini kungasiza abantu ukuthi baqaphe impilo yabo ejwayelekile futhi bathathe izinyathelo ezidingekayo uma kukhona izinguquko ezingavamile kumazinga kashukela.
Kubalulekile ukubonana nodokotela abangochwepheshe ukuze bahlole imiphumela futhi bahlole noma yisiphi isimo sezempilo esihlobene nezinga likashukela egazini.

Lingakanani izinga likashukela egazini lomuntu onempilo ngaphambi kokudla kwasekuseni?

Yisiphi isikhathi esifanele sokukala ushukela?

  • UMnyango Wezempilo uncoma ukuthi kukale amazinga kashukela ngokushesha uma unezimpawu zoshukela ophezulu wegazi, kodwa isikhathi esifanele sokuwukala siyahlukahluka kuye ngesimo somuntu ngamunye.
  • Inqubo yokulinganisa izinga likashukela egazini yenziwa ngezindlela ezihlukene kuye ngedivayisi esetshenziswayo, kanti nemishini yokukala ushukela osegazini etholakalayo njengamanje isebenza ngezindlela ezehlukene ngokwezidingo kanye nesimo sempilo yomuntu.
  • Imithombo yezokwelapha incoma isidingo sokusebenzisana nokubambisana nodokotela ukuze anqume isikhathi esifanele sokukala izinga likashukela egazini, kuye ngesimo somuntu ngamunye kanye nezidingo ezikhethekile.

Ingabe ukucindezeleka kuyawunyusa ushukela wegazi kubantu abavamile?

Ukucindezeleka kuthinta amazinga kashukela egazini kubantu abavamile, hhayi nje kubantu abanesifo sikashukela.
Uma ubhekene nesimo esikhathazayo noma ubhekana nokucindezeleka kwengqondo, umzimba uqala ukukhiqiza amahomoni anesibopho sokunikeza impendulo yokucindezeleka.
Lokhu kungathinta ukukhiqizwa kwe-insulin, okunesibopho sokwehlisa amazinga kashukela egazini.

Ngaphansi kwezimo ezijwayelekile, amazinga kashukela egazini akhuphuka isikhashana futhi ngokushesha ngenxa yesifo sikashukela esibangelwa ukucindezeleka nokucindezeleka kwengqondo.
Njengoba kwaziwa, lokhu kwanda kungalawuleka kalula ngokulandela ukudla okunempilo nokuzibandakanya nokuzivocavoca umzimba njalo.

Nokho, abantu ababhekana namazinga aphezulu okucindezeleka isikhathi eside kufanele baqaphele.
Ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, ukucindezeleka okuqhubekayo kungaholela emazingeni aphezulu kashukela egazini.
Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi ukucindezeleka kwesikhathi eside kungase kuthinte indlela umuntu azinakekela ngayo, okuhlanganisa nendlela yokulala, ukudla kanye nezinga lokuzivivinya, okubuye kuthinte izinga likashukela egazini.

  • Ungase uzizwe ukhathazekile futhi ucindezelekile ekuphileni kwakho kwansuku zonke, futhi lokhu kuvamile ezweni esiphila kulo.
  • Nakuba ukucindezeleka kwansuku zonke kungase kungabi umthombo omkhulu woshukela ophezulu wegazi, ukuqonda izimpawu nezimpawu ezihambisana nakho kusiza ukuziqapha kangcono futhi ubhekane nazo lapho kudingeka.
  • Uma ukhathazekile ngezinga lakho likashukela egazini, kuhlale kunconywa ukuthi uthintane nochwepheshe ukuze uthole ukuxilongwa okufanele kanye nezeluleko.
  • Lona umphumela ongaba khona wokucindezeleka emazingeni kashukela egazini kubantu abavamile.
  • Gcina ithebhu ngempilo yakho bese uzama ukuphila impilo engenazo ingcindezi ngangokunokwenzeka.
Ingabe ukucindezeleka kuyawunyusa ushukela wegazi kubantu abavamile?

Kuthatha isikhathi esingakanani ukuthi ushukela ubuyele kwesijwayelekile ngemuva kokudla?

  • Ucwaningo lwakamuva lubonise ukuthi kuthatha isikhathi esithile ukuthi amazinga kashukela egazini abuyele esimweni esijwayelekile ngemva kokudla.
  • Lapho udla ukudla, ushukela ufakwa ohlelweni lokugaya ukudla bese uguqulwa ube amandla amangqamuzana.

Ngokolwazi olutholakalayo, ukwanda kukashukela egazini kuvame ukuma phakathi nehora elilodwa kuya kwamabili ngemva kokudla ukudla.
Lesi sikhathi yisikhathi esisithathayo ukuze umzimba ugaye ukudla futhi umunce ushukela.
Ngemva kokuba izinga likashukela egazini lehla, kunconywa ukuba udle ukudla okulula ukuze uqiniseke ukuthi izinga likashukela aliwehli futhi.

  • Ucwaningo lubonisa ukuthi uma ushukela wakho wegazi wangemva kokudla ungaba ngu-139 mg/dL, lokho kumaphakathi futhi kuthathwa njengokujwayelekile.

Umgomo uwukugcina izinga likashukela egazini lingaphansi kuka-180 mg/dL ihora elilodwa kuya kwamabili ngemva kokudla ukudla, futhi lesi sikhathi sibhekwa njengesikhathi lapho izinga likashukela likhuphuka lifike ezingeni eliphezulu ngemva kokudla.
Izinga likashukela wegazi ngokuvamile libuyela esimweni esivamile ngemva kwesonto lokuhlela ukudla okufanele nokunokulinganisela, njengoba izinga le-insulin neglucose egazini lilinganiswa kabusha.

Uma ungakwazi ukudla, ungase udinge usizo lwezokwelapha ukuze ulawule izinga likashukela egazini.
Abesifazane abakhulelwe kufanele baqaphele amazinga kashukela egazini, njengoba ukucindezeleka kokukhulelwa kungase kubangele ukwanda kwengozi yesifo sikashukela sokukhulelwa kanye nesifo sikashukela kamuva.
Nakuba amazinga kashukela egazini angase abuyele esimweni esivamile ngemva kokubeletha, kubalulekile ukuba abesifazane abakhulelwe balandele iseluleko sodokotela ukuze balondoloze impilo yabo nempilo yombungu.

Ngakho-ke, ukugcina amazinga kashukela egazini ngaphakathi kwemingcele evamile ngemva kokudla kuncike ezintweni eziningi, kuhlanganise nohlobo nesikhathi sokudla okudliwe, kanye nesimo sempilo yomuntu jikelele.
Kuhlale kunconywa ukubona udokotela onguchwepheshe ukuze uthole isiqondiso esiqondile sokulawula amazinga kashukela egazini ngempumelelo.

Iyiphi inombolo efanele yokukala ushukela?

Muva nje, indaba yokulinganisa ushukela wegazi iye yavusa isithakazelo sabantu abaningi abahlushwa izinkinga zempilo ezihlobene noshukela ophezulu.
Womabili la maqembu, abantu abanempilo kanye nabanesifo sikashukela, badinga ukwazi inombolo efanele ushukela wabo wegazi okufanele ube.

Kubantu abanempilo, izinga elijwayelekile likashukela egazini lisukela ku-72 kuya ku-99 mg/dL.
Kubantu abanesifo sikashukela, ukufundwa okufanele ngaphambi kokudla kuphakathi kuka-80 no-130 mg/dL.

Kuyaqapheleka ukuthi ushukela ungakalwa kusetshenziswa idivaysi eyaziwa ngokuthi iglucometer ngesiNgisi.
Le divayisi isetshenziswa ekhaya ukucacisa isilinganiso sokuhlangana kwezinga likashukela egazini.
Lo mshini uyithuluzi elibalulekile labanesifo sikashukela ukuze baqaphe izinga labo likashukela futhi balondoloze ukuzinza kwawo phakathi kwebanga elidingekayo.

Inombolo efanelekile yabanesifo sikashukela iphakathi kuka-80 no-130 mg/dL ngaphambi kokudla.
Le nombolo iyinkomba enhle yamazinga kashukela egazini azinzile.
Ngakho-ke, iziguli zelulekwa ukuthi ziqaphe izinga likashukela egazini njalo futhi zilandele imihlahlandlela yokunakekelwa kwezempilo ukuze zigcine le nombolo ngaphandle kokuba ibe ngokweqile.

Kuyaphawuleka ukuthi ukulinganisa izinga likashukela egazini kuthintwa izici eziningi, njengokudla, ukuvivinya umzimba, kanye nemithi yesifo sikashukela.
Ngakho-ke, kunconywa ukuthi ubhale phansi imiphumela yokulinganisa izinga likashukela kwirekhodi elikhethekile, lapho isiguli singabona umphumela walezi zici ekulawuleni izinga likashukela egazini futhi silungise indlela yakhe yokuphila ngokufanele.

  • Inombolo efanele yokukala ushukela egazini incike esimweni somuntu, kungakhathaliseki ukuthi unempilo noma unesifo sikashukela.

Ngazi kanjani ukuthi ushukela wami uphezulu noma uphansi ngaphandle kwedivayisi?

  • Ukuqapha amazinga kashukela egazini kubalulekile kubantu abanesifo sikashukela.

Lapha sikwethulela ezinye izindlela ongazisebenzisa ukuthola ukuthi izinga likashukela egazini liphezulu noma liphansi ngaphandle kwesidingo se-glucometer:

  1. Gada izimpawu: Ezinye izimpawu zingase zivele lapho izinga likashukela egazini liphezulu noma liphansi.
    Isibonelo, uma uzizwa ukhathele ngokweqile, ulala njalo, ukoma kakhulu, indlala enkulu, isiyezi, ukuthuthumela, ukugxilisa ingqondo, noma ngisho nokulahlekelwa ukwazi, lokhu kungase kube ubufakazi bokuthi ushukela wegazi uphakeme.
  2. Xhumana nodokotela: Uma uzwa izimpawu ezibonisa ushukela wegazi ophezulu noma ophansi, ungathintana nodokotela ukuze enze ukuhlolwa koshukela okungahleliwe.
    Lokhu kuhlolwa kwenziwa nganoma yisiphi isikhathi sosuku lapho uzwa izimpawu ezishiwo ngenhla, futhi kuthathwa njengomphumela omuhle obonisa ukuthi unesifo sikashukela.
  3. Ukunaka indlela yokuphila: Ukuze ugcine izinga likashukela egazini elifanele, kunconywa ukuba ulandele indlela yokuphila enempilo futhi elinganiselayo.
    Udokotela wakho angase akweluleke ukuthi ushintshe indlela odla ngayo ngokudla ukudla okuthile noma ukunciphisa iziphuzo ezinoshukela, okungaba nzima kunoma ubani, kungakhathaliseki ukuthi unesifo sikashukela noma cha.
  4. Gada isisindo sakho: Isisindo singesinye sezici ezibalulekile ekulawuleni amazinga kashukela egazini.
    Uma ukhuluphele ngokweqile, kungase kube nokwenzeka ukuthi izinga likashukela egazini lakho libe phezulu.
    Kubalulekile ukunakekela isisindo sakho, ulandele ukudla okufanele, futhi uvivinye umzimba njalo.
  5. Phuza amanzi amaningi: Ukuphuza inani elanele lamanzi kungasiza ekulawuleni izinga likashukela egazini, njengoba kusiza ekwehliseni umphumela wokukhuphuka noma ukwehla kwezinga likashukela.

Kubalulekile ukukhumbula ukuthi lezi zindlela azinembile ngo-100%, futhi azifaki esikhundleni sokusetshenziswa komqapha wesifo sikashukela esinembile nesithembekile.
Kunconywa ukuthi uxhumane nodokotela wakho futhi ulandele izinkombandlela zezokwelapha ukuze uqaphe ngempumelelo futhi uphathe izinga lakho likashukela egazini.

Isigaba sangaphambi kwesifo sikashukela?

  • I-Prediabetes (i-prediabetes) yisimo lapho izinga likashukela egazini lomuntu liphakeme kunokuvamile, kodwa hhayi izinga likashukela elibonisa isifo sikashukela.

XNUMX. Izimpawu:
Uma umuntu esesigabeni sangaphambi kokuba abe nesifo sikashukela, angase azizwe izimpawu ezithile zakuqala ezibonisa ukuthi useseduze nokuba nesifo sikashukela.
Lezi zimpawu zingase zihlanganise: umuzwa ongapheli wokukhathala, ukwanda kokoma nesifiso sokudla, ukuchama njalo, ukungaboni kahle, nokuthuthumela komzimba.

XNUMX. Ukuhlola ngezikhathi ezithile:
Uma uzwa noma yiziphi izimpawu ezishiwo ngenhla, kungase kubaluleke ukuthi uhlole njalo ukuze uqinisekise ukuthi unaso yini isifo sikashukela noma cha.
Kunconywa ukuthi uhlole izinga likashukela egazini njalo, ikakhulukazi uma unezici eziyingozi ezandisa amathuba okuba nesifo sikashukela.

XNUMX. Imiphumela yenkomba:
Uma imiphumela yakho yokuhlolwa ithi unalo i-pre-diabetes, ikhombisa ukuthi izinga likashukela egazini lakho lingase libe phezulu futhi kungenzeka ukuthi unqwabelana emzimbeni wakho.
Imiphumela yenkomba yalesi sigaba ihlanganisa izinga likashukela egazini (phakathi kuka-5.7% - 6.4%), ushukela wegazi ozila ukudla (phakathi kuka-100 - 125 mg/dL), kanye nezinga likashukela egazini amahora amabili ngemva kokudla (phakathi kuka-140 - 199 mg/ dL).

XNUMX. Izici ezinomthelela:
Kunezici eziningana ezithinta amathuba okuba ne-prediabetes, okuhlanganisa iminyaka yobudala (engaphezu kweminyaka engama-45), ukukhuluphala ngokweqile noma ukukhuluphala ngokweqile, umfutho wegazi ophakeme, umlando womndeni wesifo sikashukela, nokuntuleka kokuzivocavoca umzimba njalo.
Kunxuswa ukuthi banake lezi zici futhi bazame ukuzehlisa ukuze bagweme isifo sikashukela.

XNUMX. Ukuqwashisa nokuvimbela:
Ukuze ugweme i-prediabetes ukuthi ikhule ibe isifo sikashukela, kufanele kwamukelwe indlela yokuphila enempilo nelinganiselayo.
Lokhu kuhlanganisa ukudla ukudla okunempilo okuqukethe imisoco edingekayo, ukuzivocavoca njalo, ukugcina isisindo esinempilo, ukungabhemi, nokulawula ukucindezeleka nokukhathazeka ngezindlela ezinempilo.

  • Hamba uye esigabeni esilandelayo unempilo enhle.Uma ubona noma yiziphi izimpawu okukhulunywe ngazo ngenhla, noma unezici eziyingozi ezikwenza ube sengozini yokuthola isifo sikashukela, kubalulekile ukuthi ulandele amathiphu okuvimbela futhi uqale ukuvakashela udokotela ukuze uqinisekise futhi uthole iseluleko sezokwelapha esidingekayo.

Ungakanani ushukela okufanele ube ngemuva nje kokudla?

Izinga likashukela egazini ngemva kokudla ngokuvamile kufanele libe phakathi kuka-140 no-200 mg/dL.
Lokhu kusho ukuthi izinga likashukela egazini ngokushesha ngemva kokudla lingaba ngu-140 mg/dL.

Ukutholwa nokuhlolwa kukashukela wegazi ngemva kokudla kubalulekile ukwazi ukuthi izinga likashukela egazini likhuphuke ngokujwayelekile noma cha.
Odokotela ngokuvamile batusa ukuhlola ushukela wegazi ihora elilodwa kuya kwamabili ngemva kokudla ukudla, njengoba ukudla okuningi sekugaywe ngaleso sikhathi.
Kubantu abanesifo sikashukela, izinga likashukela egazini ngemva kokudla kufanele libe ngaphansi kuka-180 mg/dL.

Idatha iphinde ikhombise ukuthi izinga likashukela egazini elijwayelekile ngaphambi kokudla lisukela ku-80 kuya ku-130 mg/dL, futhi izinga likashukela emahoreni amabili ngemva kokudla ukudla kufanele libe ngaphansi kuka-180 mg/dL.
Uma ungadli noma uzile ukudla okungenani amahora angu-8, izinga kufanele libe ngaphansi kuka-100 mg/dL.

Amazinga kashukela angemva kokudla angase ahluke kumuntu nomuntu, kodwa uhla olujwayelekile lwamazinga kashukela egazi ngemva kokudla luphakathi kuka-140 no-200 mg/dL.
Nokho, kufanele kukhulunywe nodokotela ukuze kunqunywe izinga likashukela elivamile kumuntu ngamunye

Lingakanani izinga lokwelapha i-prediabetes?

  • Abacwaningi bathole ukuthi isifo sikashukela singelapheka.

Ucwaningo luveze ukuthi abantu abalulama ku-prediabetes banciphisa amathuba okuba nesifo sikashukela ngama-56% esikhathini esiyiminyaka emihlanu.
Lokhu kungemuva kokulandela izinyathelo ezibalulekile zokushintsha indlela yakho yokuphila.

Kunezinyathelo ezingalandelwa ukugwema ukukhula kwe-prediabetes ibe yisifo sikashukela, yilezi ezilandelayo:

  1. Ukushintsha indlela yokuphila: Abantu abanesifo sikashukela kufanele bashintshe indlela yabo yokuphila ngokuvamile, ikakhulukazi mayelana nokudla okufanele kanye nokuvivinya umzimba njalo.
  2. Ukugcina isisindo esinempilo: Kunconywa ukugcina isisindo esinempilo nesifanele, njengoba ukukhuluphala kubhekwa njengesinye sezici ezibaluleke kakhulu ezandisa ingozi yesifo sikashukela.
  3. Ukuqapha izinga likashukela egazini: Iziguli kufanele zilinganise izinga likashukela egazini njalo futhi ziqinisekise ukuthi awenyuki ngaphezu kwezinga elivamile.
  4. Ukuyohlolwa ngezikhathi ezithile: Kubalulekile ukuthi abantu abanesifo sikashukela bahlolwe ngezikhathi ezithile ukuze kuqinisekiswe ukusimama kwesimo sabo sempilo.
  • Nakuba isifo sikashukela singase sithathe iminyaka emithathu ukwelapheka futhi silulame, kubalulekile ukusibona kusenesikhathi bese sithatha izinyathelo ezidingekayo ukuze sigweme ukuthi sikhule sibe yisifo sikashukela sangempela.
  • I-prediabetes iyelapheka futhi abantu abanalesi sigaba bangakwazi ukuzuza ukuthuthukiswa okuphawulekayo empilweni yabo ngemva kokulandela iziqondiso ezifanele kanye nezinguquko zokuphila.

Shiya amazwana

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